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Aquaculture Environmental Management

Successful management of fish health is highly dependent on location factors, smoking area, farming systems and monitoring fish health. Diseases caused by viruses, the use of chemicals or antibiotics are not recommended. Some of the actions that should be done is:
1) Prevent the spread of the virus through the carrier mainly fish sick and means of transportation.
2) Restricting traffic from and to the location of the outbreak in order to isolate the outbreak area.
3) Reduce stress on the fish and increase the resilience of fish with immunostimulatory or vitamin C at a dose of 250-750 mg / kg feed. Ideally feed containing vitamin C given for maintenance. If not controlled, the fish immediately removed and destroyed by buried or burned.
5) disinfection of all components used in the production process fish (water and container cultivation immediately disinfected).
6) Do not use water, equipment, and other facilities that come from outbreak sites.
7) Run Fish Health Management through integrated, among others: Control of a healthy environment, use of superior and healthy fish, and adoption of biosecurity against viruses on all components of cultivation.
8) Replacing the commodity that is more resistant to the virus.
9) quarantine measures should be applied strictly.

Epizootiologi infection
Epizootiologi is the transmission factor and reservoir of infection. The cause of shrimp diseases can occur horizontally or vertically.
1) Horizontally occurs through the food chain or virions that exist in the environment and enter the body healthy shrimp.
2) Vertically happen in a way that being a carrier parent will transmit the virus through feces after-free in the water will infect the larvae. Infection generally occurs through three main routes, namely the skin, gills and digestive tract.

Diseases Caused Bacteria
Bacteria are around the water system. When fish experience stress, the bacteria can cause disease. Common signs of a disease caused by bacteria:
1) The body of the fish rosy-cheeked, excessive mucus, and if the disease is not treated, rosy-red signs will be spread throughout the body causing ulcers (sores), damage to the fins, gills and skin.
2) Color pale gills and dark body color change
3) weak fish move slowly, breathe gasping at the water surface
4) Decreased appetite.
5) Sometimes the eyes and fish stomach became swollen.
6) The death of fish caused by the bacteria is high and simultaneously;

Pathogen of types of bacteria in fish farming in Indonesia can be seen in Table 2.
Table 2. Pathogens in freshwater fish farming in Indonesia

Some types of bacteria are reported to have been found in Indonesia, but not widespread, namely:
1. Aeromonas salmonicida in Java,
2. Mycobacterium sp. in Java and Sumatra,
3. Edwardsiella tarda in Java
4. Streptococcus sp. in Sulawesi.

Prevention through quarantine measures against fish imported from abroad and dilalulintaskan in the territory of Indonesia must be done to prevent the kinds of bacteria that has not been found or has been found in Indonesia but not widely distributed. In general, the source and mode of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria attack, among others through a sick fish, fish career, contaminated water, contaminated food, contaminated eggs, tools or clothing contaminated water or through bird feathers.


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