Containers can be divided in outline into two kinds depending on their use, namely the outer container or container transport and container for the consumer or sales container. The main purpose of container transport is as a place and also to protect its contents during transportation from factory to consumer. The function of the container for the consumer or the sales container is to provide a certain amount of goods in one unit to be purchased by the last consumer.
There are six main types of outer containers or containers transporting crates or crates ( crates ) of wood or polywood .
- • Polywood or steel ( kegs ) boxes
- · Drum-drum steel and aluminum.
- · Drums of fiber board .
- · Crates from solid and wavy fibre boards .
- · Bags of textiles (jute, cotton, linen)
- · Sacks ( bales )
Besides these six main types, there are several types composed of plastic containers reinforced with fiber glass. Plastic containers are often also used for transporting liquids. The main groups of containers for consumers or sales are:
- · Metal cans and containers where the lid is reinforced with metal.
- · Bottles and glass jars.
- · Plastic containers with a variety of rigid or slightly rigid forms.
- · Damage-resistant tubes when falling, whether made of metal or plastic.
- · Boxes made of thick, rigid paper and cardboard.
- · Paper-pulp containers of various shapes.
- Flexible packaging made of paper, paper board, thin plastic, foil, laminats used for wrapping, pouches, envelopes, sachet, wide coating and others.
The deviation of the quality of foodstuffs including fishery commodities and their processed products is qualitative shrinkage where the material is degraded so that it becomes unfit for human consumption. Food is said to be damaged if it has changed taste, decreased nutritional value, or unsafe again for consumption because it can interfere with health. Damaged food is food that has expired or exceeded the shelf-life ( shelf-life ). Expired food may still look good but the quality has decreased, so has the nutritional value.
Besides qualitative shrinkage is also known quantitative shrinkage, ie loss of amount or weight, due to poor handling and biological disorders (insects and rats attack). Qualitative and quantitative losses are essential in the packaging process.
When compared between the two types of shrinkage, the quantitative shrinkage is more instrumental in the packaging. Packaging as an integral part of the processing and preservation of fishery commodities may also affect quality, caused by changes:
- · Physical and chemical changes due to the migration of chemicals from packing materials (plastic monomers, white lead, corrosion).
- · Changes in flavor, color, texture affected by vapor and oxygen displacement.