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Damage Symptoms Seaweed

Symptoms of seaweed damage caused by predation can be grouped based on their characteristics to identify pests that attack seaweed. Grouping based on characteristics are:
a) Gouging (blister) is a small wound on thalus seaweed, slightly flaky pigment layer as if no damage. This attack can be caused by slugs or sea star larvae
b) Planing, shows damage such as damage on one side of the thallus with forms such as friction. This is because the seeds attacks starfish larger
c) Stripping is more cuts and scrapes in the thallus and cause serious injury. Causing the cortex layer thalus missing
d) Tip nipping (bite marks) shows damage to the tip thalus bitten, but bites part of the new shoots grow back. This can be caused by herbivorous fish such as fish beronang, surgeon fish or parrot fish
e) The total damage (damage total) secata overall seaweed damaged by bites, especially in the young thallus
f) Seaweed is broken even largely lost, this can be caused by the green turtle
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Figure 24. Symptoms of pest attack in seaweed by grazer (a) Gouging (b) Planing (c) Stripping (d) Tipo nipping and (e) Total damage