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Infection Plant Cultivation

Cultivated plants will be faster infected when there are a lot of scars because it will be the entrance for pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial infections that cause disease in thallus ice ice can occur in several ways which infected the wound cuts (cuttings for seed), wounds caused by fish bites, injuries from seeds bond too tightly and enter through the pores of the thallus. Amiludin (2007) explains that in several studies conducted by the beginning of observation in the area of ​​cultivation appears that almost all the plants were infected with ice-ice is characterized by bleaching / color fade rod (thalli), slimy covered by impurities such as white flour, the outer skin or epidermisnya chipped in infected so visible in the network / medulla in thalli.

Infection in thalli starting from a particular section, among others:
1) The infection stems from the wound at the base of the cuttings as a result of picking / cutting
2) infection of the wound starts to bite predator fish
3) The infection starts from the wound due to friction / too tightly bind the clumps of seaweed
4) Infections caused by transmission of the healthy part of the stem by stem infected part of one family or the other comes from the clump.

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Figure 26. Disease ice-ice that begins from infection thallus (a) as a result of cutting the base of the thallus (b) fish bites (c) friction bonding is too strong (d) contracting by another thallus

Bacteria found in ice-ice that attack seaweed, among others:
1) Pseudomonas cepacia
These bacteria are rod-shaped and gram-positive, is able to hydrolyze arginine, decarboxylase lysine, can not mendekarboksilase ornithine, and capable of producing the compound H2S, produce urea, deaminase triptophane, have enzymes gelatin, oxidize glucose, oxidize mannitol, oxidize sucrose, oxidizes cytochrome, motile, can grow on MacConkey media, and can ferment and oxidize glucose. Pseudomonas cepacia is a bacteria residing in the aquatic environment and soil (Peix et al., 2009; Pandamme and Dawindt 2011).

2) Flavobacterium meningosepticum
These bacteria are rod-shaped and gram-positive, is able to hydrolyze arginine, decarboxylase lysine, was not able to utilize citrate as a carbon source, deaminase triptophane, have enzymes gelatin, oxidize glucose, oxidize mannitol, oxidizes sorbitol, test on O / F does not produce enzimurase, not form nitrite, and not acidify sucrose. Bacterial colonies are round, smooth, convex and yellow pigments.

From the results of the isolation and identification of bacteria is found in thallus and cultivation media afflicted ice-ice that has a yellow pigmented colonies. These bacteria obtained from thallus K. alvarezii on the area of ​​cultivation in the island waters Bake. According Jooste and Celia (1999), the bacteria are inhabitants of the sea. According to Largo et al. (1995), on the type of seaweed K. alvarezii and E. denticulatum this bacterium that causes ice-ice, Flavobacterium meningosepticum but does not cause disease suminori on the type of seaweed.

3) Plesiomonas shigelloides
These bacteria are rod-shaped and gram-positive, have enzymes ß-galactosa, is able to hydrolyze arginine, decarboxylase lysine, deaminase triptophane, producing indole, have enzymes gelatin, oxidize glucose, oxidize mannitol, oxidizes sorbitol, oxidize sucrose, oxidize melibiosa, oxidize amigladin, oxidize arabinose, motile, can grow on MacConkey media, and can ferment and oxidize glucose. Plesiomonas shigelloides is a bacteria found in the marine environment (Rey et al. 2004).

4) Pseudomonas diminuta
These bacteria are rod-shaped and gram-positive, is able to hydrolyze arginine, decarboxylase lysine, decarboxylase ornithine, and not capable of producing the compound H2S, is not capable of producing urea, deaminase triptophane, capable of producing acetoin, have enzymes gelatin, oxidize glucose, oxidize mannitol, oxidize sucrose, oxidize cytochrome, motile, can grow on MacConkey media, and can ferment and oxidize glucose. Pseudomonas diminuta is a bacteria that can increase the production of coenzyme Q10, CoQ10 which serves as the electron transport system in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Bule and Rekha 2009).

5) Vibrio alginolyticus
Motile and able to utilize nitrate, glucose, triptophane, mannitol, has a gelatin enzyme, cytochrome oxidize, and motile. Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the genus Vibrio bacteria that are on the beach and estuary environments which are zoonotic through fishery products (Austin, 2010). Vibrio alginolyticus can cause acute illness in temperature pressure conditions grouper Epinephelus coioides (Cui et al. 2010). Vibrio alginolyticus is heterotropik marine bacteria that had availability Fe complex that can produce siderophores catecholate (Poorvin et al., 2011). Vibrio alginolyticus is a pathogenic bacterium which has the highest level of the seaweed.