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Establishment of Cold Working

Formation by cold working (Cold Working) can also be done in a simple but if oversize desired size then it must first be softened (annealing) on the heating temperature 5000C. Cooling speed is not critical but Quenching with water to eliminate dirt and slag as well as ease in cleaning.

a. Copper Alloy (Copper base Alloy)
Copper Alloy (Copper base Alloy) the most widely used as an engineering material because it has many advantages, among others:
1) It has good mechanical properties, electrical properties and high thermal conductivity and resistance to corrosion and wear resistance.
2) Easily formed by machining
3) Easily formed through heat processing (Hot working) and cold working (Cold Working)
4) Easy to be connected via soldering, brazing and welding.
5) Easy polished or diplating if desired
6) Pressing and forging temperature is lower than with the use of metallic materials Ferro.

Copper Alloy (Copper Alloy) can be grouped into:
1) Copper low alloy included in this group are Silver-Copper, Cadmium-Copper, Tellurium-Copper, Berylium-Copper and Copper-Nickel Alloy-Silicon.
2) Copper alloy with high levels, namely Brass and Bronze.

b. Copper alloys with low levels
1) Silver-Copper;
Softening temperature of this type of copper can be increased from 200 0 to 350 0 via the addition of up to 0.08% Nickel element. The copper will be harder with the voltage can not be reduced by soldering temperatures, penimahan (Tining) or other process that uses a low temperature. Silver Elements with low levels of these effects occur only very few irregularities and depending on the value of the conductivity of the copper itself. Silver-Copper is used as part of Comutator Radiator components and the various applications that require hardness and stable voltage without being affected by the heat caused by heating during the process pnyambungan. Silver also has a creep resistance properties of the copper due to softening temperature.

2) Cadmium-Copper;
Cadmium levels of 1% on Copper will increase the softening temperature, as well as resistance, voltage and increases ductility and fatigue. Cadmium-Copper conductors are used to extend the range of overhead line cables and conduction of electrical current to the electrode resistance welding (welding electrodes)

Soft nature of the cable is made of Cadmium-Copper is widely used in the electrical wiring of the aircraft because it is flexible and resistant to vibration. Cadmium levels were lower only memanajang damage will occur but depends on the conductivity of the copper itself.

3) Chromium-Copper,
elements up to 0.5% Chromium Copper will minimize the effect on conductivity, but the violence and the tension will increase and will receive treatment panas.Analisis reaction to equilibrium diagram between Chromium alloy with Copper gives an indication that only a small quantity of chromium that DAPT mixed in solution on (solid solution).

Solid solution of Chroimum will be increased according to the increase in temperature and all elements of Chromium will be entered in the solid solution at temperatures 10000C. If the alloy is in-Quenching of this temperature there will be a “Solution treated” so that all the rest of the chromium will remain in solid solution and produce a tenacious and tough alloys.

The process of precipitation (precipitation treatment) is done to redress the balance and improved mechanical properties, namely by providing the reheating temperature up to 5000C with time (Holding time) for 2 hours and then cooled.

Figure 1.7 Part of a copper alloy equilibrium diagrams CHROM (Chromium-Copper)

4) Tellurium-Copper,
element Tellurium in Copper up by 0.5% would produce a copper alloy which can be formed either through the machining process. Tellurium is insoluble in copper alloy namunakan spread entirely when it is melted and the remaining in the form of fine particles wherein the alloy in the solid state, so it will obtain a copper alloy that can easily be formed by machining and produce chips are easily dislodged.

5) Beryium-Copper
Berylium used as an alloying element in copper if its strength is more important than the conductivity.

The results of the analysis of copper alloys Berylium equilibrium diagram indicates that only a few elements that enter into Berylium the solid solution of copper and the rest of the elements are stacked Berylium copper until it reaches room temperature in the form of γ.

Solid solution of copper in the Berylium will expand by heating the alloy responds cukupuntuk made by precipitation heat treatment, the process is done by giving pamanasan up to 8000C and then in-Quenching followed by heating up to 3200C are cooling to soften and improve the tenacity and improve its structure.

Copper-alloy Berylium very important and widely used in berbagaindustri which is a blend of strong dank eras with Brylium levels up to 2% and 4% Copper Alloy Berylium and 2.6% Cobalt. Copper alloys are used as wave-Berylium diapragme, Flexible Blower, Bourdon pipes, Cold Chisel, Hacksaw Blades where a spark could cause an explosion flames.

6) Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloys,
If Nickel and Silocon in a ratio of 4: 1, which is 4 part 1 Nickel and Silicon integrated part in the Copper (Copper) at high temperature it will form an element called Nickel silicide (Ni2Si) and the low temperature of these alloys will suit fatherly deposition the heat treatment, in which the dissolution process will be obtained in the process of Quenching Temperature 7000C and copper alloy properties will be acquired soft and ductile, followed by heating it at 4500C temperature will increase the hardness and stress of the copper alloy.

Percentage of Nickel and Silicon levels is tailored to the needs of nature produces, usually given between 1% to 3%. Copper alloy will have thermal properties and good electrical Conductivity and resistant to oxidation and the formation of skin and can maintain its mechanical properties at high temperatures for long periods of time.