Soil is a habitat or a place to live different kinds of living organisms or bodies in the ground. Based on the function, generally there are two classes of bodies live in the soil, which is beneficial organisms and harmful. Beneficial organisms are organisms involved in the process of degradation or decomposition of organic material, binding or provide nutrients and or the establishment and improvement of soil structure.
While harmful organisms are organisms that utilize plant life, both as a source of food or as a host is referred to as pests or plant diseases as well as competitors in the absorption of nutrients in the soil. Consider the following Figure 1. 33. This image shows a close relationship between fertility of soil organisms and plants. Soil containing lots of soil organisms are generally infertile, due to the influence of the activity of soil organisms will lead to improved soil fertility, both physical, chemical and biological.
Figure 1:33 Soil Organisms
In general, the ground soil organisms are grouped into two categories, namely (1) the soil fauna or animals, and (2) plant or plant land.
1. Fauna or land animals
Fauna or soil animals are animals that live in the soil. Soil fauna can be divided into two groups, namely macro-fauna and micro-fauna.
a) The macro fauna, namely the large animals that live in the soil consisting of herbivores (plant eaters) and carnivores (predators of small animals). Included in the group of herbivores are different types of worms (annelids), snail (Mollusca), crab (Arthopoda), centipede (centipede), millipedes (diplopoda), mites (Arachnida) and kelmpok insects (Insecta) such as grasshoppers, beetles, termites, crickets and ants, and other small animals that nest in the ground.
b) Micro fauna such as predatory parasites, including nematodes, protozoa, and rotifers.
2. Flora or Plant
Flora soil or ground plants are plant species that live in the soil. The type of plant that can live in the soil are plant species and exceptional low-level plants are classified as microflora. Included in the microflora of the group include (1) the algae, consisting of green algae and blue-green, (2) fungi include molds, yeasts, and molds, (3) aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.