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Bacteria Attack On Fish Farming

A. Pasteurella piscicida
Pasteurella piscicida is a short rod-shaped bacteria, measuring 0.6-1.2 x 0.8 to 2.6 μm, are gram-negative, do not move, do not make the capsule or spore and are facultative anaerobes.
These bacteria can live in seawater environment with a temperature range for growth is 10-39 ° C. Generally isolated from fish can grow well at 25 o C. Pasteurella piscicida reported to affect marine fish include fish ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), fish black seabream (Mylio macrocephalus), fish red seabrearn (Pagrus major), fish red grouper (Epinephelus akaara), fish yellow tail (Seriola quinquiradiata) and fish menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), while Aerococcus virridans reported meyerang American lobster.

Symptoms are visible in the attack on the fish is
a) The body color becomes dark,
b) Bleeding on the gill cover and fins, as well as
c) Injury to the kidney and spleen.

B. Streptoccocus sp.
Streptoccocus sp. Are bacteria that are round or oval, elongated like a chain, from 0.7 to 1.4 μm in diameter, are gram-positive, do not move, do not form spores or capsules and are facultative aerobic. These bacteria can live in freshwater and seawater with a temperature range for growth between 10-45 o C.

Stireptococcus reported to affect the types of freshwater fish and sea include rainbow trout (Onchorhynchusmykiss), sea trout (Cynoscionregalis), silver trout (Cynoscionnothus), golden shiner (Notemigonuscrysoleucas), yellow tail (Seriolaquinquiradiata), menhaden (Brevoortiapatronus), Sea Catfish (Ariusfelis), striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), Atlantic croaker (Macropogon undulatus), spot (Leiostomus exanthus), Sting ray (Dasyatis sp.), Dolphin freshwater (Iniageoffrensis), eel (Angulla japonica) Ayu (Leicoglossus altivelis), Amago salmon (Onchorhynchus rhodurus), Jacopever (Paralichthys olivaceus), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), Blue fish (Pomatomous saltatic), Siganids (Siganus cahaliculatus), Sea Bream (Pagrus major), tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

Attacked fish show symptoms such as
a) The eyes stand out,
b) Bleeding on the eyelids,
c) The kidneys swell,
d) Heart to scarlet and
e) Damage to the gut.

C. Yersinia ruckeri
Yersinia ruckeri is a rod-shaped bacteria, with a size of 1.3 x 0.5-0.8 μm, are gram-positive, spore-forming or capsule, move with the flagella peritrichous at temperatures below 30 ° C, whereas at 37 ° C do not form flagella. These bacteria can be found in water with optimal growth temperature 22-25oC.
Yersinia ruckeri reportedly attacked the family Salmonidae fish, and the fish are attacked hallmark characteristics are:
a) Visible sluggish,
b) The body color becomes dark
c) yellow fluid in the intestine,
d) The stomach filled with fluid that is colorless,
e) Bleeding in the muscles and internal organs, as well as
f) Inflammation in certain parts such as the mouth, palate, gill cover and base of the fin.

D. Aerococcus viridans (var.) Homari
Aerococcus viridans (var.) Homari is a bacterium that is round, there is a pair or as a chain, are gram-positive, do not move and do not form spores. These bacteria can be found in fresh water or sea water as well. Aerococcus viridans mode of transmission through sick fish. Clinical signs of an attack on the lobster is not clear, it sometimes looks pink in the upper abdomen.
Disease has a negative impact can be felt right away, such as high economic losses.

At the end of 1980, in Indonesia there have been deaths of 125 thousand goldfish and 30% of the parent fish, occur in areas of cultivation in West Java caused by the attack of bacteria Aeromonas spp. among others A. salmonicida and cause a decrease in production so the losses amounted to approximately 4 billion rupiah. In 1989, an outbreak of furunculosis in Scotland 15 times in freshwater fish and 127 times in sea water fish.

Pasteurella piscicida reported to have caused mass deaths of fish yellowtail (Seriola sp.) In Japan with a loss of 10 million pounds, or 30 billion rupiah. Edwardsiella tarda is a bacterial disease causes the most serious in the cultivation of eels in Taiwan and Japan, whereas E. ictaluri in late 1980 reportedly led to mass mortality (over 50%) of the children and the parent fish catfish Americans in the US. Losses incurred in the tens of millions of dollars or tens of billions of rupiah.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Japanese outbreak occurred due to Streptococcus attack on yellow tail fish, eel, tilapia ayu and causing losses of up to 30 million pounds, or approximately 90 billion rupiah. Prevention should be done to avoid large losses of occurrence that can be caused by bacterial attack. Follow-quarantine is absolutely necessary in the prevention of the entry of the types of bacteria with the fish imports that previously did not exist in Indonesia.

In addition quarantine also prevents the spread of bacterial species that already exist in certain areas of the island to the region / other islands in Indonesia. By increasing the system and the actions of the fish quarantine in Indonesia, the efforts to increase fish production and fish resources are expected to rescue more successful.