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Barriers to Export Fishery Products

The existence of barriers to export of tuna from the European Union to encourage the Department of Marine and Fisheries (DKP) implementing improved management and quality control. Results Improved quality management is done DKP showed a drastic reduction of cases of Rapid Alert System (RAS) is from 49 cases in 2005, dropping to 34 cases in 2006 and 17 cases in 2007. Indonesia is considered successful but still must be vigilant and disciplined in meeting predetermined quality standards, especially in the supervision of the entire tuna fish handling procedures, starting from the fishing, handling, landing (unloading and transit) as well as the distribution, which can enable an increase in histamine content (DKP 2008).

Since 1970, cases of histamine poisoning has been a lot going on, for example, in Japan, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and the UK. Histamine is a biogenic amine formed by reaction of free histidine amino acid decarboxylation during post mortem phase due to bacterial activity. decarboxylation reaction caused by histamine-forming microorganism contamination, such as Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hafnia alvei.

Contamination can occur from ship dismantling, processing sites, or at the time of the distribution chain to the consumer. Contamination and bacterial activity may be inhibited if the fish is handled correctly with attention to environmental sanitation and to always apply the principle of low temperature handling. Microbial contamination is likely to occur in poor sanitary conditions, for sanitation activities that do not prevent contact between food by insects or other contaminants and usually ends with a microbiological problem.

Related to export marketing, aspects of product quality and food safety is an important factor that must be considered. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Risk Analysis is a system in the application of the concept of security and hygiene of foodstuffs in an attempt to meet the requirements of the quality standards of food safety International trade. Systematic approach to risk analysis has been used by FAO and WHO since 1955, when evaluating the use of additives in food.

With increasing time, continued development of the food safety system. In the early 1960s introduced practies Good Manufacturing (GMP), in 1971 introduced a formal system of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and in 1995 made the formal introduction of quantitative risk analysis. Risk analysis system has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be applied in each country in an effort to control the quality and safety of food products, including fishery products.

America and Europe have implemented this system of risk analysis, surveillance conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Europe Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Indonesia as one of the countries exporting fishery products should also apply this risk analysis, because in addition to consumer protection food safety, it is also important in the international trading system. Risk analysis consists of three main components, namely risk assessment, risk management, and risk comunication.

Risk assessment is composed of hazard characteristics, assessment of exposure / dose respone, hazard characterization and risk characterization. The results of the risk assessment is very important to know, because it will be used in the determination of risk management. Risk management is the development and implementation of strategy, implementation of management decisions, monitoring and review, which is expected to result in policy or decision that the company can control the risk of histamine. Tuna anticipate problems concerning enhancement histamine hazard risk is so great that the study “Assessment of the risk of histamine tuna (Thunnus sp.) Fresh quality range of export quality during the unloading process (transit)” needs to be done.