Ammonia in water can come from fertilizers, animal excretion and results overhaul of nitrogen by microbial components. Some plants can absorb ammonia. Decomposers (nitrobacter) can oxidize ammonia into nitrate. Therefore, ammonia can be decreased concentration in various ways. However, with a high density of fish pond and artificial feeding can increase the concentration of ammonia.
NH3 + H2O -> NH4 + + OH-
Effect of Ammonia On Bodies are:
a. The result of the balance between ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 +) is the total ammonia nitrogen.
b. The balance of total ammonia nitrogen is ammonia (NH3) will increase concentrations when pH and temperature is high. The highest effect is the effect of pH than the influence of temperature. For example, the water has a pH of 6.8 and a temperature of 26 ° C, 2 mg / l total ammonia nitrogen-containing ammonia (NH3) 2 mg / lx 0.006 = 0.12 mg / l, while at the same temperature and water but with a pH of 9 will contain ammonia (NH3) 2 mg / lx 0.4123 = 0.823 mg / l. Therefore, with the increase in pH will cause a rise in ammonia (NH3).
c. The nature of ammonia (NH3) in fish is able to increase the consumption of oxygen in the tissues, damage the gills and reduce the blood’s ability to mentranportasi oxygen.
d. The concentration of ammonia that can kill fish in a short time is 0.6 to 3.1 mg / l NH3-N for all the fish.
e. The toxicity of ammonia will increase when oxygen drops. The concentration of calcium (Ca) can lower the toxicity of ammonia.
f. Fish growth hampered if the accumulation of ammonia in the media maintenance, can even cause poisoning in fish.
A total of 5 ppm ammonia at pH 9 and a temperature of 20 ° C, the concentration of un-ionized ammonia is (5 ppm total ammonia) x 28.5% = 1.43 ppm.
Effects of High Ammonia is:
1. Occurrence of damage Gills
2. The rate of growth eased
3. Easy to disease
4. Increase in blood ph
5. Damage to the tissues and organs of internal parts
6. Osmoregulation weak
Causes of High Ammonia:
1. Feeding excess
2. Decomposition of organic matter by bacteria.
How to handle:
1. Reduce the amount of feed
2. Substitution of water
3. Reduce the density of fish
4. Provision of aeration
5. Lowering the pH of the pool