Salting is a method used to preserve the product of fishery by using salt (NaCl). In the process of salting, preservation is done by reducing the water content in the body of fish and in the body of bacteria so that bacteria can not live and grow again. The term salting is also often called marinating. The salting technology is not usually used as a single preservation method, but it is continued with other preservation processes such as drying or boiling. This advanced process will produce three different salted fish products, namely: wet salted fish, dried salted fish and boiled salted fish (pindang fish).
Salt preservation methods are the simplest and most common method of fish processing. Almost 65% of fishery products are still processed and preserved with salting. This causes salted fish products is a product that is easily found in all parts of Indonesia. There are several reasons why salting method is a method of preservation of fish that many do, among others:
a. The salting technique is a simple technique and can be done by everyone.
b. The salting technique is a cheap technique in terms of production costs.
c. The result of salt preparation combined with drying has long lasting durability and does not require special treatment so the marketing is very wide.
d. Salted fish products are cheap so they can be reached by all levels of society.
Salting process is a way of preserving fish by using salt as a preservative medium. The type of salt used is a crystal-shaped kitchen salt or solution. Through salting, microorganism activity, especially bacteria will be hampered, so the fish become durable and can be stored for longer period.
During the salting process, there is a process of penetration of salt into the fish body. Instead, the liquid in the fish body will come out due to the difference of concentration. After the salt concentration equation exists between the body of the fish and its environment, then the thickening of the remaining body fluid and the agglomeration of protein (denaturation) and the shrinking of fish body cells so that the nature of the flesh changes.
The mechanism of preservation of fish with salt is as follows:
a. Salt absorbs water from the fish body through the process of osmosis. The water content in the fish body is reduced. Lack of water in the fish body as a medium for bacterial growth causes the metabolism process in the body of bacteria is disrupted.
b. Salt also absorbs water from within the body of bacteria so that bacteria will experience plasmolisis (plasma core separation) so that bacteria will die.