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Soil Cultivation (Tillage)

Various soil and water conservation techniques on mechanical methods mentioned above serve to: slow the flow of surface water, accommodate and channel the flow of surface water so as not to damage, repair and rebuild the water infiltration and soil aeration and provides water for the plants. The definition of tillage is any manipulation / engineering of the ground to create good soil conditions for plant growth.

Conservation tillage in addition to the soil it also encourages erosion because of cultivated land is also easily eroded. When cultivated land affected by rainwater and eroded the surface / soil pores also immediately closed and ultimately soil particle surfaces are also easily eroded. Therefore the way tillage to prevent erosion are:
 – Tillage carried out as necessary
 – Tillage and accompanied by contour planting.
 – Tillage accompanied by the manufacture Biophory

Furthermore, under iniakan described each treatment was as follows:
 – Tillage carried out as necessary
Surface land cultivated in full means more fertile soil in which the bond between patikel disconnected so that it will easily dissolved when no water flow. However, the solubility of the water flow will be lower when the processing is not until crumbly / full, for example, simply invert the soil or digging into chunks without menggemburkannya.
Figure 17. Processing of the ground in rows planted

 – Tillage contour and accompanied planting.
Tillage with plowing following the direction of the slope will certainly encourage the furrows of water that causes erosion. Very different if tillage transverse follow the contours for surface water flow is slow. To increase the flow of surface water, the planting of vegetation (grass or trees) on the boundary contour lines will increase infiltration and soil strengthening.
Figure 18. Processing follow the contour

If we in Pula. Java and Bali stout rice plants grown in a mountainous area with bench terraces form a pretty good because it created contour. Processing of the ground like this quite well in the context of the prevention of erosion. But in the area of Puncak, Bogor, Dieng and various other areas there is still a ground processing that follows the slope, especially in areas of planted vegetables. How tillage like this is very detrimental to soil conservation.

By the time the rain comes the rain hitting the surface of loose soil erosion will occur and surface water flow higher and higher. Because the transverse contour soil processing the rainwater that falls to glide as runoff with speed and greater quantities.


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