The more sophisticated and modern the heavy equipment units will require a large electric current. The charging system must be able to meet the current requirement under all the operating conditions of the unit and should be able to rapidly charge the battery. The main component of the charging system is the alternator and in most modern machine units with the exception that it is related to wiring is the only component in the charging system. Figure 1.1 shows the commonly used alternator on the heavy equipment unit.
Figure 1.1 Alternator
Basically an alternator is also an AC generator (alternating current) that is a tool that serves to change the mechanical energy generated engine into electrical energy. Some electrical components of the system which also as energy change are motor setarter and battery. All three are interrelated components and work together to support engine performance. Motor setarter as the engine’s initial drive to convert electrical energy into motion energy.
As a prime mover of course, the starter motor requires electrical energy reserves to be converted into mechanical energy and this is obtained from the battery, which functions to convert electrical energy into chemical energy (to be stored) and converted back into electrical energy as a supply of electric current to the starter motor. In this series of batteries work only as a storage of electrical energy while as a source of electrical energy is an alternator that functions to change mechanical energy into electrical energy, to more clearly note the image 1.2 below:
Figure 1.2 energy converter