Some of which we will discuss are the tools that convert electrical energy into other forms of energy. This is important given the amount of electricity consumption in the unit during operation, depending on how many devices are used, for example when the unit works at night with all the lights on and the air conditioner also works with the blower ON. Keep in mind also if some appliances on the unit cabin may still work even if the engine unit is OFF or idle for long periods of time, it also contributes in reducing the current in the battery.
Keep in mind if a battery is a device for storing electrical energy, and needs to be recharged when it loses a certain amount of electrical energy. The alternator here is intended as a charger and maintains the battery current at a certain point and the output current is also required by many of the electrical components used by the current heavy equipment unit. Alternator is designed so that its output can meet the needs of ampere unit. The following is a list of some of the tools that can be found on the current heavy equipment unit along with the load current.
Not all of the above components are lit together at a time. If some current flows during idle this will cause the alternator to work hard because the alternator when the engine idle output only about 40% compared to when the RPM high. Today many companies program diesel engines to die after idle in a short time. This improves fuel efficiency and extends engine life and can comply with environmental legislation. Now that we have understood that heavy equipment requires a large electric current, to maintain a balance between input and output energy, the alternator can be adjusted to the unit requirements.
For some years ago units, trucks and light vehicles used DC generators to generate DC current or Direct Curent (direct current). This is because all components of the unit including the battery require DC voltage (direct current). Along with technological developments, vehicles and units are equipped with more electric components, resulting in more difficult for generators meeting current requirements. Remember the battery is a source of electric current when engine cranking (start) and also a current source when the engine does not work (running). The generator becomes the current source when the engine is running.
- Although the DC generator produces direct current using the comutataor system, here are some disadvantages to the DC generator:
- RPM Range is limited.
- It produces little or no voltage at all when the position is idle.
- To increase the output current, the physical size of the generator is greatly increased.
Semiconductor opens the possibility to develop and introduce AC Alternating Current generator to replace DC generator. The advantages of AC / alternator generator are:
- Generates sufficient current when RPM is low or idle
- Lighter and smaller in size
- More durable
- The rectification of AC to DC through a diode is not a mechanical rectification used as in a DC generator.