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Methods of Cleaning Materials

Selection of cleaning method depends on the purpose, type and characteristics of the materials were washed and the type and characteristics of the dirt to be separated. For example if you want to separate the dirt from rice husks can be done by winnowing and if it will remove dirt on fruits can be done washing.

a. Sorting
Separating dirt from commodities often called the sorting. Sorting can be done manually by separating dirt mixed directly on the material. This method is suitable to be applied to products with a relatively large size for example separating the healthy fruits of a fruit biologically contaminated or rotten. Commodity cereals for the use of simple tools such as nyiru sorting and filter will effectively separate the impurities such as gravel, twigs or empty seeds. More detailed ways of sorting materials agricultural and fishery products have been discussed in other sections of this book.

b. Washing
In the water washing process plays the most important. Water used for washing the activities of agricultural and fisheries should have certain requirements, in particular for fishery products washing water used must meet the standards of the fish processing industry. Water is also used for washing materials are also used to wash equipment and sanitary room. Physically, the water should be clear, colorless, and odorless.

Chemically, the water used should not contain harmful chemicals, such as heavy metals, toxic compounds etc. In terms of microbiological, water used for washing should be free from pathogenic microorganisms or microorganisms that can cause disease.

Table 4. The standard of water quality for fish processing

c. The use of disinfectants
For controlling microorganisms on materials cleaned with the washing process, the water can be added pencucinya disinfectant. The type and concentration of disinfectant used depends on the type of material that is washable. For example, the use of Benomly 600 ppm in bananas by means immersed for 0.5 – 1 minute aims to kill the spores of microorganisms contained in the surface of a banana skin.

Materials commonly used disinfectant is chlorine dose use of 200 ppm. After washing with a solution of chlorine it is necessary to flushing to reduce the concentration of chlorine to a safe limit. Other materials that can be used to substitute for chlorine include: chlorine dioxide, ozone per acetic acid, tri sodium phosphate and hydrogen peroxide.

d. Recovery (curing)
After harvesting potato commodities, bulbs and group rhizom for example onion, ginger and potatoes made recovery by drying for 1-2 hours until the soil attached to the tubers dry and easily removed. After that, the tubers immediately stored in a cold or cool and dry. For potatoes be stored in a dark place (no radiation)! Curing also plays close wounds that occur at harvest time

e. Mengepris and weeding materials agricultural products
First of all let us understand the meaning of some terms that may be unfamiliar we hear in everyday life. Kepris in Indonesian dictionary which means weeding weed or shrub, cutting branches in the garden wood etc. so clean. The term subsequently adopted as cleaning the fish before cooking, plucking and take the entrails of birds, removing scales and entrails on the fish.

Based on the above sources can dianologikan that mengepris or weeding materials agricultural and fishery products is eliminating unneeded areas that exist on the commodity. It could be part of waste materials that can be used or can not be utilized, such as leather, fur and others. The parts can also be a source of contamination for example the roots that bring land, part of the contents of the stomach which contains microorganisms. Weeding can also reduce the volume that will save freight costs.