Steam for sanitary purposes can be applied using flowing steam at a temperature of 170 ° F (76.7 ° C) for 15 minutes or 200 ° F (93.3 ° C) for 5 minutes. Sanitation with steam ineffective and expensive. The use of this steam for heavy contaminated surfaces can cause the formation of clots are hard on the organic material residue and inhibits heat penetration deadly microbes.
Figure 9. The process of Sanitation with Steam
2) Hot Water
Immersion small tools (knife, small parts, tableware, and small containers) in water heated to 80 ° C or higher is another way to heat sterilization. Deadly effect by this summer allegedly caused by denaturation few protein molecules within the cell. However pouring hot water into the container is not a reliable method of sterilization, because in this way a high temperature sodium absorption ratio can be maintained to ensure sufficient sterilization.
Hot water can be an effective way, non-selective for the surface to be in contact with food. However, spores, microbes can survive for more than one hour at a temperature of boiling water. How to sterilization is often used for plate heat exchangers and eating utensils used in food service facilities (food service). Hot air can also be used for sanitation with a temperature 82.2 ° C for 20 minutes.
The temperature of the water used will determine the contact time required to ensure sterilization. One example temperature relationship – a combination that is applied by the various factories that use 15 minutes at a temperature of 85 ° C or 20 minutes at 80 ° C. When the time is reduced further, it takes a higher temperature. The volume and velocity of water flow will affect the time required by each component to achieve the desired temperature.
When the water hardness exceeds 60 mg / l, there will be rust on the surface sanitized, if the water is not softened. Hot water is advantageous because it is easily available and non-toxic. Sanitation can be equipped with water pumps or equipment is immersed in water.
Figure 10. The process of sanitation with water
3) Sanitary Radiation
Radiation at a wavelength of 2500A in the form of ultra-violet rays or high-energy cathode or gamma rays to destroy microorganisms. Ultra violet rays have been used in the form of a low-pressure mercury vapor lamps to destroy microorganisms in the hospital, at home and for other similar applications. However, this method has a drawback in its utilization for food manufacturers and food service facilities, is a total effectiveness.
The range of effective microorganisms deadly ultraviolet light is short, thus limiting its use in food processing. The contact time used to be more than 2 minutes and is only capable of destroying microbes are exposed to direct light. The main application of this sterilization method is in pengkemasan.
Figure 11. Radiation Equipment