1) Dam for water supply and irrigation, rainwater in reservoirs. The water is then channeled to the city – cities or farms using large pipes or channels.
2) Hydropower Dams, using water to drive a turbine to generate electricity. After passing through the turbines the water is then released back into the river which is located below the dam.
3) Dam flood control, rainwater during heavy rainfall to reduce flooding in the downstream of the river.
4) Dam Navigation, rainwater and release it when the water in the river is low. The dam is typically used to move the ship – sailing ships that pass through the dam.
5) Dam water flow divider, divides the water into the channel – the other channel.
6) Dam for recreation, the dam created as a recreational area to enjoy the beauty of nature.
A dam different buildings of other civil engineering.
1) A dam is a mass of building materials in large quantities over a place that limited extent, so therefore there will be pressure very large burden on the underground.
2) The devastating effects of the water in the reservoir of the dam foundation and tehadap itself, so that could arise leakage, erosion, and even the collapse of the structure in question.
3) A dam has always been built in a valley.
A dam made of concrete according to some requirements regarding land masses, because the masses of land will bear almost all the stress – shear arise, and may not represent a significant reduction in differential, due to a solid structure that could collapse.
Types of Dams
The division type of dam can be divided into seven circumstances, namely:
1) Type of dams based on the size, there are 2 types, namely:
a) Large dams (Large Dams).
Based on the classification:
- Height of the dam.
- The length of the dam crest is not less than 500 meters.
- The capacity of the reservoir is formed of not less than 1 million cubic meters
- The maximum flood discharge is not taken into account not less than 2000 M3 / sec
b) Dams Minor (Small Dam)
All the dams are not included as large dams.
2) Type of dams based on their development objectives.
There are two (2) types namely:
a) dam with a single goal (Single-purpose dam). Is a dam built to fulfill one purpose only, eg for hydropower, irrigation, flood control and other needs. ,
b) Dams versatile (multi-purpose) is a dam built to meet several objectives, such as hydropower and irrigation, irrigation and flood control etc.
3) Type of dam based on usage.
There are three (3) types namely:
a) dam to form a reservoir (storage dam) is a dam built to create reservoirs to store excess water time to use them in time of need.
b) Dams catcher / pembelok water (diversion dam) dam built to higher water surface so that it can flow into the waterway or aqueduct.
c) Dam for rnernperlarnbat running water (detention dam) is a dam built to rnernperlambat running water, so it can rnencegah great flood.
They can be subdivided into two (2) sections
– To rnenyirnpan sernentara water and flowed into the downstream natural channel.
– To rnenyirnpanair during rnungkin order to rneresap the surrounding area.
4) Type of dam by way of water.
There are two (2) types namely:
a) Dam to pass water (overflow dams) is a dam built to pass water, for example in buildings pelirnpah.
b) Dam for water rnenahan (non-overflow dam) is equal dam water should never be skipped.
5) Type of dam by construction.
If 80% of the material forming the body of the dam consists of a graded material is almost the same. If the material forming the body of the dam consists of materials that pass water, but equipped with a watertight curtain udiknya.
If the material forming the body of the dam consists of materials that pass water, but is equipped with a waterproof core-based sloping downstream. If the material forming the body of the dam consists of materials that pass water, but is equipped with a waterproof core-based vertical. If the material forming the body of the dam consists dati materials that pass water, but is equipped with a wall of water did not pass on the slopes udiknya, which is usually made dati stainless steel sheet, reinforced concrete slabs, asphalt concrete, plastic sheets, etc.