As you already know, that every atom usually has the number of protons and electrons are the same. For example a hydrogen atom has one proton and one elektron.Atom depalan protons and oxygen has eight electrons. When these conditions exist, then the electrical charge of the atom becomes neutral, because the amount of positive charge equal to the amount of negative charge. But under certain conditions, then the charge in an atom can become unbalanced, this can happen when an atom loses how electrons.
In this case, the atoms lose their electrons to be positively charged, and other atoms that accept electrons are negatively charged extra because negative charge is greater than the positive charge. So in an atom, the electrical charge would arise if the number of protons is not the same as the number of electrons.
Figure 1.11 The structure of uncharged atoms
An understanding of the electric charge and Coulomb’s law will help us to understand the movement of free electrons. Under certain conditions, some atoms can lose some of the electrons in a short time. As it is known, that every atom has electrons. There are two types of electrons, the electrons bound (valence) and free electrons. The free electrons are electrons that are in the outermost orbit of any atom structure.
Electrons are located in the outermost orbit, the position is not stable, that is easily separated from the pull proton. Valence electron detachment can occur because of some events, such as pressure, friction, and because the chemical process. Figure 1.12 shows the structure of an atom consisting of four protons, four neutrons, and four electrons, where there are two electrons are in the outermost orbit is called a free electron (valence).
Figure 1.12 The structure of positively charged atoms
If the number of electrons and protons in each atom of a material equal, then the material is said to be neutral. However, it is possible for us to move electrons possessed by a material somewhere else we can also add the amount of the charge of electrons into the material. As a result, the number of electrons is not the same. This condition is said to be electrically charged material. In addition, each material has a number of electrons of each atom is different.
Old-fashioned way to get the movement of electrons from one particle to the other atomic particles is through friction. Friction on the seat lid made of plastic in the winter and silk clothing friction on the glass stem is a classic example generate static electricity through friction. Static electricity, without seeing how it raises, solely caused by the movement of electrons permanently.
Electrostatic generate free electrons movement by moving the free electrons of an atom. The main trait is not possible electrostatic transfer electrons maintain this in a long time. Because so electric charge between the two atomic particles has been balanced, the flow of electrons will stop.