Dam can be classified according to the structure, purpose or altitude. Based on the structure and the materials used, the dam can be classified as a wooden dam, “embankment dam” or “masonry dam”, with various subtypes. The goal made including providing water for irrigation or urban water supply, improving navigation, generate hydroelectric power, creating recreation areas or habitat for fish and other animals, prevention of floods and withstand discharges from industrial sites such as mines or factories.
Only a few dams are built for all the above purposes. According to the altitude, a large dam higher than 15 meters and the main dam is more than 150 m. Meanwhile, the low draft of less than 30 m, the dam being between 30-100 m, and the dam height is more than 100 times m.Kadang no such thing Saddle Dam is actually a dike, which is a wall built along the lake side to protect the soil around from flooding. This is similar to dikes, which wall is made along the side of the river or waterfall to protect the surrounding land from flooding.
Checker check dam dam is a small dam which is designed to reduce and control the flow of dry cleaning tanah.Bendungan erosion dam is a dam designed to control flooding. He usually dry, and will hold water which if left unchecked will overwhelm the area underneath.
a. Half dam
Dams half diversionary dam is a dam that does not close the stream. a portion of the flow ditampuh in a separate lake, in front of the dam.
b. dam Wood
Wooden dam is sometimes used by people due to the limitations of location and altitude where it is built. In the location where the dam is made of wood, kayulah’s most materials, cement is expensive and difficult to transport. Wooden dam used to be widely used, but most have been replaced with concrete, especially in industrialized countries. Some dam dam is still used. Wood is also the basic material used beaver, often coupled mud and rocks to create a beaver dam.
Building Controlling Sediment / weir
Rivers are waterways above the earth’s surface which in addition also transporting sediment drain the water contained in the water of the river. Sediments carried away by the flow of water, which can be distinguished as basic sediment and floating charge. Because the basic charge is in constant motion, the surface of the river sometimes rises, but sometimes down (relegation). While the floating charge has no effect on the river bed alteration, te but may be able to settle in the bottom of the reservoir-waduk.sehingga can cause various problems and silting of reservoirs and estuaries.
Prevent sedimentation process is something that is impossible to do, because sedimentation is the result of a process which is very complex natural phenomena on the surface of the earth. This process takes place continuously and sometimes – sometimes further exacerbated by human activities. By rainwater runoff materials – materials are washed away into the sedimentation trough – riverbed.
Technically sedimentation process can be slowed reached a level that is not harmful, the sedimentation rate is balanced with the ability haulage river flow is fluvifal and inevitable movement of sediment mass. Thus the river channel in the fan area deposition at a rate – a certain level can be stabilized in both vertical and horizontal.
In order to slow down the process of sedimentation, the necessary data regarding the type of sediment is generated and how terangkutnya, location, volume, intensity evolution dasarv rivers, rain, river discharge, because – because the disasters that have occurred, and others. Efforts – efforts to slow sedimentation process, among others by conducting civil engineering works to control its movement toward the river in the downstream. The work is a form of construction of the dam retaining (check-dams), lava pockets, regulating weir, dam consolidation and normalization of the work flow of the river (hill side work).