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Paper and Glass Packaging

A. Paper Packaging Paper packaging is the first flexible packaging before the invention of plastic and aluminum foil. Currently paper packaging is still widely used and able to compete with other packaging such as plastic and metal because the price is cheap, easy to obtain and extensive use. In addition to packaging, the paper also serves as a media communicator ...

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Salinity Factor Seaweed

Salinity is the amount (grams) of substances soluble kilogram of sea water which is considered all carbonates have been converted to oxide, bromine, and the ions replaced by Clor and all organic material has been oxidized completely. Salinity waters for marine organisms is an important environmental factor. Each marine organisms have different tolerance to salinity for survival. Beveridre (1987) in ...

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Disease In Aquaculture

Bodies is a living environment for aquatic biota such as fish, aquatic insects, water snails, animal organisms, aquatic plants, the tiny plants and others. In this environment there will be interaction between organisms (biotic) existing water environment (abiotic) as the medium of his life, as well as the interaction between water biota itself in order to survive. This interaction thus ...

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Effect Of Water Alkalinity On Cultivation

To maintain the pH of the water to remain stable at around 6.8 it is necessary a chemical process that is expressed in alkalinity. Alkalinity is the ability estab-bufffer late of bicarbonate ions, carbonate and hydroxide ions in water. The third ion in the water will react with the hydrogen ions so as to reduce acidity or pH increase. Alkalinity ...

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Elements Iron and Sodium

In plants, algae iron acts as a constituent of cytochrome and chlorophyll, as well as act as enzyme systems, and electron transfer in photosynthesis, excessive iron levels greatly inhibit the fixation of other elements (Effendi, 2000). Iron also plays a role in the oxidation-reduction in the process of photosynthesis and respiration in addition to a few enzyme cofactor in plants ...

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Content of Ammonia Water On Cultivation

Ammonia in water can come from fertilizers, animal excretion and results overhaul of nitrogen by microbial components. Some plants can absorb ammonia. Decomposers (nitrobacter) can oxidize ammonia into nitrate. Therefore, ammonia can be decreased concentration in various ways. However, with a high density of fish pond and artificial feeding can increase the concentration of ammonia. Ammonia is highly toxic when ...

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